What is Brake ? | Types of Brakes | Disc Brake - News4u95


Saturday, 30 January 2021

What is Brake ? | Types of Brakes | Disc Brake


  • Brake is a device with the help of which artificial frictional resistance is applied to a moving machine member, in order to stop or retard the motion of a machine.
  • While performing this function, the brake absorbs either kinetic energy of the moving member or potential energy given by objects being lowered by cranes, elevators, etc.
  • The energy absorbed by the brake is dissipated in the form of heat in the surrounding air, so that excessive heating of the brake lining does not take place.

Types of Brakes

Brakes are generally classified according to the method used for transforming the energy by the braking element.

They are grouped as follows:

1. Mechanical brakes  

  • Block brakes
  • Disc brakes
  • Band brakes
  • Internal or external shoe brakes

2. Hydraulic brakes

3. Electric brakes

4. Magnetic brakes

Hydraulic, electric and magnetic brakes are mostly used where large amounts of energy are to be transformed while the brake is retarding the load.


Disc Brake

Disc Brake
Disc Brake

  • Disc brakes are more efficient and now-a-days being adopted on large scale in the automotive segment.
  • It consists of a rotating brake disc mounted on the wheel and two friction pads positioned on either side of the disc.
  • The pressing of the stationary brake pads on the revolving disc causes friction, resulting in braking.

Construction of Disc Brakes

  • It consists of cast Iron or steel pressed disc bolted on the wheel hub.
  • The brake disc revolves along with the wheel.
  • The outer circumference of brake disc is housed in the hydraulic caliper.
  • The hydraulic caliper consists of two sliding pistons.
  • The outer surface of sliding pistons is provided with friction pad riveted on it.
  • Fluid lines connect the caliper to the brake lever or pedal.
  • Retractor springs are mounted in between the piston and caliper housing.

Working of Disc Brakes

  • When the vehicle is running, the brake disc revolves along with the wheel.
  • When the brake lever or pedal is operated, the braking effort is transmitted to the hydraulic caliper through pressurized fluid.
  • The fluid pressure pushes the two piston towards the brake disc.
  • The friction between the brake pads on the stationary pistons and the rotating brake disc causes the braking of the vehicle.
  • When the brake lever is released, the two pistons are pushed back by the retractor springs.

Advantages of Disc Brakes

  • The operation and assembly of disc brake is much simpler.
  • As the friction pads are flat, the wear and tear is uniform.
  • Heat dissipation is faster.

Disadvantages of Disc Brakes

  • The overall system cost is higher due to hydraulic caliper and fluid lines.
  • The frictional area of pads is less, thereby requiring high pressure intensity fluid.


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