Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) | Introduction, Working and Components - News4u95


Sunday, 27 September 2020

Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) | Introduction, Working and Components

Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON)

Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON)
Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON)

GPON or ‘Gigabit Passive Optical Network’ is a point-to-multipoint mechanism access system.

The main feature of GPON is the use of passive splitters that enable single feeding fiber from a central location of the network provider to serve multiple users in their home and small businesses.

Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for security purposes, designed to be functional in both hardware and software, and supports block lengths of 128 bits and lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.

GPON also supports all types of Ethernet protocols.

Working of Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON)

Using passive splitters, GPON enables a single fiber to use a single fiber and giving the end-user the ability to combine multiple services on a single fiber data network.

GPON is also fully scalable without network recycling. Systems can be configured for up to thousands of users with multiple OLT chassis.

So as usage trends evolve and bandwidth requirements for an end-users increase, GPON enables future upgrade migration without infrastructure changes.

The end result is a future-certified, customized, high-capacity fiber network for CCTV and webcams, security systems, interactive signage "PIDS", video on demand, high-speed internet, PMS integration, high or all types of IP based services, ultra high definition IPTV, Control access control and door entry, VoIP telephony, traditional along with analog telephony, automatic minibar system, POS terminals, and Wi-Fi access node.

Components of Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON)

IPU-T Recommendation Series G. GPON shows an increase in bandwidth compared to APON and BPON. GPON can be applied to many areas. Desktop (FTTT) fiber applications are distributed in fiber, usually using GPON single-mode, simplex optical fiber connectors, and passive optical splitter to provide precision termination using angle polished connectors (APCs). This GPON system has four main components: optical line terminal (OLT), transmission medium (cabling and components), fiber optical splitter, and optical network terminal (ONT).

Optical Line Terminal (OLT)

OLT is a device that acts as a service provider endpoint of a passive optical network. It is an active Ethernet integration device that is usually located in the data center or main equipment room. An OLT converts an optical signal transmitted from a fiber into an electrical signal and presents it to the core Ethernet switch. Replaces multiple levels 2 switches at the OLT distribution point. OLT distributing signals are connected via optical splitters with backbone cabling or horizontal cabling, connected to the optical network terminal in each work area outlet.

Transmission Medium

GPON transmits signals through passive, physical cabling infrastructure. Transmitted media include copper, fiber optic patch cords, attachments, adapter panels, connectors, splitter, and other materials. All of these broadcast media components must be factual in a channel loss budget to get better performance.

Fiber Optic Splitter

The fiber optic splitter, also known as the beam splitter, is an integrated waveguide optical power distribution device. With this fiber optic splitter, multiple devices can be served from a single fiber. It is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber network. This is especially useful in GPON, EPON, and FTTX, etc. PON typically connects a single fiber from OLT to multiple ONUs. Connectivity between OLT and ONU is achieved using fiber optical splitters. The number of outputs in the splitter determines the number of partitions. Split ratios often consist of 1: 4, 1: 8, 1:16, 1:32 and 1:64. The inclusive loss of a typical 1x32 optical splitter ranges from 17 dB to 18 dB. Fiber optic splitter includes fused binocular tapper (FBT) splitter and planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter.

Optical Network Terminal (ONT)

The ONT also called a modem, connects to the termination point (TP) with an optical fiber cable and connects to your router via a LAN / Ethernet cable. It converts the optical signal into an electrical signal to be delivered to the last device. OPT always has multiple Ethernet ports for connection of IP services with CPU, phone, wireless other access points, and other video components.

Read More Articles: Important Benefits of Gigabit Passive Optical Networks (GPON)

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